Bitcoin Can Fuel Your Retirement

Bitcoin Can Fuel Your Retirement

Can this cryptocurrency add security to your golden years? With most Americans believing their retirement investments are inadequately diversified, it may be high time for them to dip a toe in Bitcoin IRAs.



Is Bitcoin In A Bubble? Check The NVT Ratio

Is Bitcoin In A Bubble?
Check The NVT Ratio


February of this year,

I tweeted a chart that presented the idea of a PE ratio for Bitcoin, something I temporarily called MTV Ratio before my buddy Chris Burniske suggested the less confusing term of NVT Ratio (Network Value to Transactions Ratio). Later in May, Chris was the first to present NVT Ratio at Token Summit 2017. Subsequently, this ratio has been mentioned in blog and media articles across the web. In my original tweet, I promised an article; it lay unwritten until now.

The Idea Behind NVT Ratio

In traditional stock markets, price-earnings ratio (PE Ratio) has been a long standing tool for valuing companies. It’s simply the ratio of a company’s share price to its equivalent earnings per share. A high ratio describes either over valuation or a company in high growth. What would be the equivalent in Bitcoin-land? We have a price per token, but it’s not a company so there are no earnings to do a ratio. However since Bitcoin at its essence is a payments and store of value network, we can look to the money flowing through its network as a proxy to "company earnings”.

Bitcoin’s Network Value closely tracks the money (Transaction Value) flowing through its blockchain.As you can see the value transmitted on the Bitcoin blockchain is closely tied to its network valuation. The idea that we can use the money flowing through the network as a proxy for network valuation is valid.We can express this as a ratio. I call it NVT Ratio, short for Network Value to Transactions Ratio. Below is a historic chart of Bitcoin’s NVT ratio. A live and interactive chart is available on my site at's NVT Ratio is its Network Value divided by the Transaction Value flowing through its blockchain.  Estimation of daily on-chain transaction value provided by

How To Use NVT Ratio

A High NVT Ratio Can Indicate High Speculative Value

Networks under high growth exhibit high NVT Ratio.We can see in the early years of the Bitcoin network, growth was very steep. This resulted in the markets valuing the network high in comparison to the actual transaction value flowing through the network. In other words, we're seeing a network growing explosively which then demands a premium valuation based on future potential. This is very similar to what we see in PE ratios in the high growth stages of young companies.

Using NVT Ratio To Detect Bubbles

Predicting a bubble before the fact is rather elusive as a price explosion does not necessarily mean the asset is in a bubble. We can only determine this after the peak when the market reassesses the new valuation and we see if the price  consolidates or crashes. For example Ethereum’s valuation during Q1 of 2016 grew by a factor of 15x from $70 million to well over $1 billion. To the uninitiated, it looked like a bubble, yet there was no crash, its new valuation was sustained, thus it proved not to be. Similarly, NVT Ratio can not reliably determine a bubble ahead of time, but it is very useful for discerning between a crash or a consolidation after the price has peaked. It can determine this relatively quickly.

After an explosive price climb, the price consolidates or crashes.

During a price explosion there’s a short term flurry of trader activity and new users hitting the network which serves to drive transactional value through the network. It’s only after the frenzy has subsided do we see whether the value flowing through the network has kept in tandem with its higher valuation. Sometimes it does (it’s a consolidation), and in other times it does not (hence, a crash). Using the NVT ratio we can detect the difference between consolidation and bubbles very visibly. If the NVT ratio stays within a normal range, we are not in bubble territory. If it climbs above the normal range, it's a sign that the transactional activity is not sustaining the new valuation and we can expect a lengthy price correction.

Bitcoin's two bubble detected by NVT Ratio

The chart above shows the NVT ratio in action detecting two of Bitcoin's historic bubbles. In 2011 and early 2013, Bitcoin exploded in price followed by NVT ratio rising above the normal range. These were deemed bubbles under NVT ratio analysis. Subsequently we saw lengthy 92% and 83% corrections in price.

A Bubble That Wasn’t A Bubble

NVT ratio called out the first "bubble" of 2013 as a consolidation move.Of particular interest is the first rapid price rise of 2013 (highlighted with a rectangle in the chart above). We saw a 83% consolidation from peak to trough. It's interesting as the NVT ratio did not rise high enough to signify a bubble, yet you would think a 83% correction would be fit to be called a bubble, right?

Not so! If we dig into the network’s undergrowth, we find that the value transmitted by the network was high enough to keep the NVT ratio within normal range. Though the markets sold off until the price experienced a sudden dip that was 83% off the peak, that dip was very short lived and the long range chart reveals a pattern more akin to a consolidation which completed quicky. This is a case where the NVT ratio, had it been around back then, was telling the markets it was undervaluing the network at the peak of market fear.

Hey NVT, Are We In A Bubble Today?

At the time of writing, Bitcoin's NVT Ratio suggests we are not in a bubble.Now for the golden moment – let's apply the NVT ratio to test the Bitcoin's market at the time of writing. We've suffered a large pullback from $81b network value to a low of $49b, with market fearing the potential onset of a bear season. As we can see in the chart above, NVT ratio is within normal bounds. NVT ratio is saying this is a price consolidation. The transaction value flowing through Bitcoin's network is perfectly healthy and supports the currenct valuation.

NVT Ratio On Other Crypto-Assets?

The question arises, can NVT Ratio be used as a valuation metric for other crypto-assets? My tentative answer, subject to further study, would be “usually, but not always”. At its essence, Bitcoin’s NVT ratio is a comparison of how much the network is being valued to how much the network is being used. If you’re applying the NVT ratio to a different network, the value transmitted on-chain needs to be a good representation of how much the network is being used. This is not always the case.


Similar to Bitcoin, Ethereum's Network Value closely tracks the money flowing through its blockchain.Ethereum launched in 2015, as a smart contract computing network that's fast become the most popular platform for token sales this year. Since the token sales conducted on Ethereum require payment in Ether, there's a very strong correlation between the transactional value and network value as seen above. Ethereum is only two years old and its high growth phase. It will take some time before its NVT ratio settles into a meaningful long term range for bubble detection.

Currencies That Provide Staking Rewards

Networks like Decred and Dash have transactional activity resulting from staking, a process where stakeholders of a network lock up and collateralise their tokens to provide services to the network in return for revenue. This revenue flowing back to the stakeholders is not reflective of the network’s utility and will skew the results coming from the NVT ratio. For these types of networks it would make sense to provide a corrected NVT ratio which subtracts the transactional value resulting from staking which is numerically predictable.

Fungible Networks

Private and fungible currencies like Zcash and Monero hide some, or all of their value transmitted on-chain so it’s impossible to determine their NVT ratio accurately.

Chuck Reynolds

Marketing Dept
Please click either Link to Learn more about -Bitcoin.
Interested or have Questions. Call me 559-474-4614


Why Bitcoin and Ethereum will soon be everywhere

Why Bitcoin and Ethereum will soon be everywhere

Why Bitcoin and Ethereum will soon be everywhere

Bitcoin, Ethereum and blockchain technologies are all the rage. Initial coin offerings (ICOs) are raking in millions in mere minutes, and every day a new initiative is announced with ever-increasing hype.

With all of this going on, you’d expect cryptocurrencies to be mainstream fare, right?

Unfortunately, they’re not quite there — yet.

As of now, your grandma probably isn’t wagering Ethereum with her bridge buddies. Heck, even buying pizza with cryptocurrency sounds like science fiction. The fact of the matter is that for people outside of the hardcore crypto-enthusiast community, the whole idea is still mysterious.

This article will help you get a better grasp of the future of cryptocurrency. After you finish it, you’ll clearly see how these technologies are poised to join the mainstream.

So, when will this dizzying race come to an end? Is there real value in the blockchain craze? Can it possibly live up to the expectations created by so many rivers of newsprint?

Below, you’ll find answers to all of these questions and more.

The true potential of blockchain technology

As it turns out, distributed blockchain ledgers do have a future.

Not only can they reduce skyrocketing IT costs, but the promise of faster, less-expensive financial transactions has the potential to accelerate growth in a host of industries.

With this great potential comes some bad news, though … you won’t see these possibilities become a reality until the technology becomes useful in the real world.


What will this look like exactly? Well, when you can pay for a ride to a cafe and buy a coffee in crypto — without needing a master’s degree, mind you — its use will be pretty standard.

When crypto goes mainstream transactions won’t be measured in millions of dollars, but trillions.

The explosion of the global sharing economy illustrates how cryptocurrency can go mainstream.

Several companies are already changing the way things are done in this sector. They’re taking products and services that are already in existence and turning them into economic opportunities for millions of people.

In their industry, Uber and Lyft have transformed the way the world thinks about traveling by car. They’ve also empowered people who couldn’t otherwise find work to generate income.

With these businesses, it’s easy for drivers to get started, and they can work on their terms. Due to these reasons and more, Uber and Lyft have taken off like wildfire.

Air B&B

Airbnb also challenges the status quo to provide worldwide accommodations for its users. Not only has it reinvented the way people think about traveling, but it’s been an absolute game-changer when it comes to bringing more money into various communities.

Currently, initiatives like Open Money are laying the foundational groundwork so that software developers can make the vision of universal cryptocurrency acceptance possible. Their platform provides the technological infrastructure that will integrate cryptocurrency transactions into practical, everyday applications.

At the end of the day, companies like Uber and Lyft don’t just change the way we think about the world — they change the world. When it comes to cryptocurrency, companies like Open Money will significantly expand the acceptance of cryptocurrencies by facilitating their incorporation into the software people are already using.

Can cryptocurrency acceptance in consumer apps open the floodgates?

Now all of this sounds pretty amazing, but what is needed to bring this vision to reality?

Companies will need to develop strategies that are based on proven market principles to succeed. Namely, they’ll need to empower app developers from all over the world to quickly and easily integrate cryptocurrencies into their applications.

The booming consumer applications market is the ideal starting point for bringing cryptocurrencies into the mainstream. According to a recent research study by We Are Social, more than half of the world’s population now connects to the internet with a smartphone, generating over 50 percent of all internet traffic.

Overall, 3.5 billion people around the globe consistently use mass-market consumer software.

around the world

The real motor of consumer software lies in the hands of software developers. All around the globe, these individuals are innovating solutions that engage their users in powerful ways.

Unfortunately, they don’t currently have the tools they need to make this possible.

Though others are likely to follow in its footsteps, Open Money is the first initiative to provide a state-of-the-art REST API, SDKs and industry best practices designed to facilitate blockchain integration.

Built by developers and for developers, with this solution, it won’t be necessary to start from scratch. Instead, they can leverage an established infrastructure to transition their currently successful apps into the cryptocurrency market, finally enabling you to pay for your pizza in cryptocurrency.

“We want to be the catalyst that takes blockchain technology and puts it in the hands of billions of people around the world. By empowering developers of all sizes to harness the true potential of this amazing technology, we will be contributing to a world that is more efficient, equitable and productive. That’s what the Open initiative is all about,” explained Ken Sangha, COO of Open Money.

The Opportunity

Cryptocurrency is on the brink of change. Soon, app developers from around the globe will empower everyone — including grandparents— to use cryptocurrency with ease. (Nostalgia: $12 checks written by older folks will soon be a thing of the past, so get your cryptowallet ready.) If they succeed, they’ll create a new market that’ll change the economic system forever.




Posted by David Ogden

David Ogden Cryptocurrency Entrpreneur



Blockchains: How They Work and Why They’ll Change the World

How They Work and Why They’ll
Change the World

The technology behind Bitcoin could touch every transaction you ever make


Bitcoin was hatched as an act of defiance.

Unleashed in the wake of the Great Recession, the cryptocurrency was touted by its early champions as an antidote to the inequities and corruption of the traditional financial system. They cherished the belief that as this parallel currency took off, it would compete with and ultimately dismantle the institutions that had brought about the crisis. Bitcoin’s unofficial catchphrase, “In cryptography we trust,” left no doubt about who was to blame: It was the middlemen, the bankers, the “trusted” third parties who actually couldn’t be trusted. These humans simply got in the way of other humans, skimming profits and complicating transactions.

Bitcoin sought to replace the services provided by these intermediaries with cryptography and code. When you use a check to pay your mortgage, a series of agreements occur in the background between your financial institution and others, enabling money to go from your account to someone else’s. Your bank can vouch that your money is good because it keeps records indicating where every penny in your account came from, and when.

Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies replace those background agreements and transactions with software—specifically, a distributed and secure database called a blockchain. The process with which the ownership of a Bitcoin token will pass from one person to another—wherever they are, no matter what government they live under—is entrusted to a bunch of computers.

Now, eight years after the first blockchain was built, people are trying to apply it to procedures and processes beyond merely the moving of money with varying degrees of success. In effect, they’re asking, What other agreements can a blockchain automate? What other middlemen can blockchain technology retire?

Can a blockchain find people offering rides, link them up with people who are trying to go somewhere, and give the two parties a transparent platform for payment? Can a blockchain act as a repository and a replay platform for TV shows, movies, and other digital media while keeping track of royalties and paying content creators? Can a blockchain check the status of airline flights and pay travelers a previously agreed upon amount if their planes don’t take off on time? If so, then blockchain technology could get rid of Uber, Netflix, and every flight-insurance provider on the market.

Satoshi Nakamoto

If the blockchain were a religion, Satoshi would be God. This anonymous hacker is responsible for writing the Bitcoin white paper, releasing the first Bitcoin code, and inspiring legions of blockchain developers. Many have sought to reveal his/her/their identity, but to this day that information remains secret.

Those three proposed applications aren’t hypothetical—they’re just a few of the things now being built on Ethereum, a blockchain platform that remotely executes software on a distributed computer system called the Ethereum Virtual Machine. In the blockchain universe, Ethereum, which has its own cryptocurrency, called ethers, is by far the project that is most open to experimentation. But zoom out and a diverse collection of potentially disruptive innovators floods into view. New groups are pitching blockchain schemes almost daily. And the tech world’s titans don’t plan to miss out: Microsoft is offering its customers tools to experiment with blockchain applications on its Azure cloud. IBM, Intel, and others are collaborating on an open-source blockchain initiative called Hyperledger, which aims to provide the bones for business-oriented blockchains. Meanwhile, many of the largest banks—the very institutions that blockchain pioneers were trying to neutralize—have cobbled together their own version of the technology in an attempt to stay ahead of the curve. And even Bitcoin, which runs on the first and most successful blockchain, is being retrofitted for applications its designers never dreamed of.

Pretty much without exception, these new blockchain projects remain unencumbered by actual mass adoption. No single blockchain concept or strategy has yet revolutionized any industry. Bitcoin itself is used by no more than 375,000 people in the entire world on any given day, according to But the investor dollars are pouring in, and proposals are floating and colliding like tectonic plates on a hot undercurrent of hype and intrigue.

When the mantle cools, which blockchain platforms will persist, and which will slowly sink back beneath the surface? To make any kind of prediction, you’ve got to understand what a blockchain really is and what it does. The place to start, logically enough, is with Bitcoin.

How Do Blockchains Work? The Bitcoin Example


In 2009, an anonymous hacker

(or group of hackers) going by the name of Satoshi Nakamoto unveiled the first entirely digital currency. The technology worked on the principle that, at its foundation, money is just an accounting tool—a method for abstracting value, assigning ownership, and providing a means for transacting. Cash is the historic means of accomplishing these chores. Simply possessing the physical tokens—bills, coins—equals ownership, and it’s up to the individuals to negotiate transactions among themselves in person. As long as cash is sufficiently difficult to replicate, there is no need for a complete accounting of who owns what portions of the money supply, or for the details of who the various holders were of a single $50 bill going back to when it was printed.

However, if you could piece together a running tabulation of who held every bill, then suddenly the physical representations would become unnecessary. Banks and payment processors have already partially sublimated our physical currency into digital records by tracking and processing transactions within their closed systems. Bitcoin completed the transformation by creating a single, universally accessible digital ledger, called a blockchain. It’s called a chain because changes can be made only by adding new information to the end. Each new addition, or block, contains a set of new transactions—a couple of thousand in late August—that reference previous transactions in the chain. So if Helmut pays Hendrieke a bitcoin, that transaction appears at the end of the chain, and it points to the transaction in which Helmut was previously paid that coin by Helche, which in turn points to the time before that when Helche was paid the coin by Halfrid, and so on.

Bitcoin’s blockchain, unlike the ledgers maintained by traditional financial institutions, is replicated on networked computers around the globe and is accessible to anyone with a computer and an Internet connection. A class of participants on this network, called miners, is responsible for detecting transaction requests from users, aggregating them, validating them, and adding them to the blockchain as new blocks. Shortly after the Distributed Autonomous Organization debuted on the Ethereum blockchain, someone siphoned US $60 million in ethers from this autonomous version of a venture-capital fund. In a bold move, the Ethereum developers rewrote the blockchain code to return the money.

Validation entails both verifying that Helmut actually owns the bitcoins in his transaction and that he has not yet spent them elsewhere. Ownership on the Bitcoin blockchain is determined by a pair of cryptographic keys. The first, called the public key, resides in the blockchain for anyone to see. The second is called the private key, and its owner keeps it safe from view. The two keys have a special mathematical relationship that makes them useful for signing digital messages. Here’s how that happens: Helmut takes a message, combines it with his private key, does some calculations, and ends up with a long number. Anyone who has the original message and knows the corresponding public key can then do some calculations of their own to prove that the long number was in fact created with the private key.

In Bitcoin, transactions are signed with private keys that correspond to the public key most recently associated with coins being spent. And when the transaction gets processed, those coins get assigned a new public key. But the main role of miners is to ensure the irreversibility of new transactions, making them final and tamperproof. The method they use for doing so is thought to be the most significant contribution that Satoshi Nakamoto—whoever he or she is—made to the field of computer science.

Ensuring irreversibility becomes necessary only when you invite anyone and everyone to take part in the curation of a ledger. If the Bitcoin blockchain were being run by a single bank with a set of known validators operating under a single jurisdiction, then enforcing the finality of transactions would be as simple as writing it into company policy and punishing anyone who didn’t follow the rules. But in Bitcoin, there is no central authority to enforce the rules. Miners are operating anonymously all over the world—in China, Eastern Europe, Iceland, Venezuela—driven by a diversity of cultures and bound by different legal systems and regulatory obligations. Therefore, there is no way of holding them accountable. The Bitcoin code alone must suffice. To ensure proper behavior, Bitcoin uses a scheme called proof of work.

Chuck Reynolds

Marketing Dept
Please click either Link to Learn more about -Bitcoin.
Interested or have Questions. Call me 559-474-4614


This Cryptocurrency Bull Believes Bitcoin Could Hit $1 Million in Less Than a Decade

This Cryptocurrency Bull Believes Bitcoin Could Hit $1 Million in Less Than a Decade

Will bitcoin make investors rich, or leave them disappointed?

If you think marijuana stocks have been on fire this year, then you haven't taken a peek at cryptocurrency returns. At one point earlier this month, the aggregate cryptocurrency market cap topped $161 billion, which represented an 810% increase from where they ended on Dec. 31, 2016. To give this some perspective, the average cryptocurrency over the first nine months of the year has delivered the same return as the broad-based S&P 500 over the past 27 years! Stocks are traditionally the greatest wealth creator, so this is a true eye-opener.

Leading the charge higher have been the two most renowned digital currencies, bitcoin and Ethereum. Bitcoin has risen by nearly 300% since the year began through Sept. 24, 2017, while Ethereum is up better than 3,400%. The duo now sports respective market caps of $61.3 billion and $26.9 billion, which account for well over half the aggregate value of all cryptocurrencies.

 The most bullish bet in bitcoin

Yet, in spite of the massive gains we've already seen, some industry pundits believe cryptocurrencies — and more specifically, bitcoin — could head considerably higher. In May, Saxo Bank analyst Kay Van-Peterson called for bitcoin to hit $100,000 per coin within the next 10 years. Mind you, this is the same analyst that called bitcoin to hit $2,000 back when it was valued at $754 in Dec. 2016. Such a move would imply a 2,650% return still yet to come.

But that's far from the only bullish estimate. Perhaps the loftiest price target for bitcoin comes from Wences Casares, CEO of bitcoin wallet Xapo, and a member of PayPal's board of directors. While speaking at the Consensus 2017 conference in New York earlier this year, Casares suggested that bitcoin could hit $1 million per coin within the next decade. That would be a return of more than 27,300%, assuming Casares' price target on bitcoin was hit. Why such optimism? "The Internet doesn't have a currency and it desperately needs one," said Casares. Nevertheless, he also urged some degree of caution. "The biggest mistake [would] be to buy more bitcoin than you can afford to lose. The big mistake is [also] not to own any bitcoin. Put 1% of your net worth in bitcoin and forget about it for 10 years."

The case for $1 million

But the question we should be asking is this: Could bitcoin really hit $1 million? If you had asked me a year ago if bitcoin $5,000 was possible, I'd probably have laughed hysterically, but bitcoin, with the aid of a little bit of rounding, essentially hit $5,000 per coin in early September. Perhaps the best shot bitcoin would have at $1 million would be if its blockchain technology became the choice of enterprises around the globe. Blockchain is nothing more than the digital decentralized network that underlies bitcoin and records transactions in a secure manner. Because blockchain can be open source, it makes altering data within the network incredibly difficult.

Less than two months ago, bitcoin forked into two separate currencies, bitcoin and bitcoin cash, with the original bitcoin network implementing the SegWit2x upgrade. This upgrade is designed to take some of the information within the bitcoin network off the network in order to improve transaction settlement times, as well as lower fees and improve capacity. The move is directly designed to appeal to enterprises, which are primarily testing Ethereum's network in pilot and small-scale projects. If bitcoin manages to lure those businesses to use its blockchain technology and it continues to gain appeal as a mode of payment with big business, then a lofty price target isn't impossible — albeit $1 million does seem exceptionally unlikely over the next decade.

Why this price target is probably a fantasy

Despite the bullishness surrounding bitcoin, there's also the possibility that it could implode from its current levels. While blockchain could be its most logical source of long-term gains, there's absolutely no guarantee that bitcoin will be the choice of businesses worldwide. We also have no way to accurately value what blockchain is worth, given that the technology is purely nascent at this point. Contending that it could be worth billions, or tens of billions, of dollars is nothing more than a blind dart throw.

There are also concerns about regulation and the decentralization of bitcoin's network. Recent crackdowns on initial coin offerings in China, and the announcement that China will, in due time, shut down its domestic cryptocurrency exchanges, reduces the legitimacy of cryptocurrencies like bitcoin. Without a central trading hub, it can increase volatility and emotions with digital currencies. However, the most dangerous aspect of bitcoin could be that emotional factor. Given that cryptocurrencies aren't backed by any government, financial institutions have largely kept their distance. This has left the pricing of digital currencies to be decided by retail investors, who are far more prone to trade on emotion rather than fundamentals. And once again, even fundamentals are unknown when it comes to cryptocurrencies.

How do we know investors are processing things emotionally rather than logically when it comes to bitcoin? Take a look at both the Bitcoin Investment Trust (NASDAQOTH:GBTC) and First Bitcoin Capital Corp. (NASDAQOTH:BITCF).

The Bitcoin Investment Trust is an ETF run by Grayscale that merely hangs onto bitcoin. As of Aug. 31, 2017, the fund held 172,721 bitcoin, which means that any investor could multiply the current bitcoin price by this figure to determine an accurate net asset value (NAV). As of Sept. 24, this ETFs NAV was $650.5 million. But on Friday, Sept. 22, the Bitcoin Investment Trust ended the trading session with a market cap of $1.13 billion, or a premium of 74%! In other words, investors are paying a premium of 74% over the current value of the ETF's holdings, which makes no sense whatsoever.

By a similar token, in August, investors wound up pushing penny stock First Bitcoin Capital to a nearly $1 billion valuation despite the company having very little in way of tangible cryptocurrencies operations. A look at its balance sheet reveals very little cash, and its only assets are gold-based rights from when the company held gold-mining assets in Venezuela back in 2013 before switching to cryptocurrency operations for good in 2014. Yet, according to investors as recently as August, a company with just over $46,000 in revenue was worth nearly $1 billion. Emotions can only carry an asset so far, and bitcoin looks to be on the verge of a possible bursting bubble.

Chuck Reynolds

Marketing Dept
Please click either Link to Learn more about -Bitcoin.
Interested or have Questions. Call me 559-474-4614


Do You Need a Blockchain?

Do You Need a Blockchain?

According to a study released this July

by Juniper Research, more than half the world’s largest companies are now researching blockchain technologies with the goal of integrating them into their products. Projects are already under way that will disrupt the management of health care records, property titles, supply chains, and even our online identities. But before we remount the entire digital ecosystem on blockchain technology, it would be wise to take stock of what makes the approach unique and what costs are associated with it.

Blockchain technology is, in essence, a novel way to manage data. As such, it competes with the data-management systems we already have. Relational databases, which orient information in updatable tables of columns and rows, are the technical foundation of many services we use today. Decades of market exposure and well-funded research by companies like Oracle Corp. have expanded the functionality and hardened the security of relational databases. However, they suffer from one major constraint: They put the task of storing and updating entries in the hands of one or a few entities, whom you have to trust won’t mess with the data or get hacked.

Blockchains, as an alternative, improve upon this architecture in one specific way—by removing the need for a trusted authority. With public blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum, a group of anonymous strangers (and their computers) can work together to store, curate, and secure a perpetually growing set of data without anyone having to trust anyone else. Because blockchains are replicated across a peer-to-peer network, the information they contain is very difficult to corrupt or extinguish. This feature alone is enough to justify using a blockchain if the intended service is the kind that attracts censors. A version of Facebook built on a public blockchain, for example, would be incapable of censoring posts before they appeared in users’ feeds, a feature that Facebook reportedly had under development while the company was courting the Chinese government in 2016.

I Want a Blockchain!

Do you really need a blockchain? Asking yourself a handful of the questions in this interactive can set you on the right path to an answer. You’ll note that there are more reasons not to use a blockchain than there are reasons to do so. And if you do choose a blockchain, be ready for slower transaction speeds.

However, removing the need for trust comes with limitations. Public blockchains are slower and less private than traditional databases, precisely because they have to coordinate the resources of multiple unaffiliated participants. To import data onto them, users often pay transaction fees in amounts that are constantly changing and therefore difficult to predict. And the long-term status of the software is unpredictable as well. Just as no one person or company manages the data on a public blockchain, no one entity updates the software. Rather, a whole community of developers contributes to the open-source code in a process that, in Bitcoin at least, lacks formal governance.

Given the costs and uncertainties of public blockchains, they’re not the answer to every problem. “If you don’t mind putting someone in charge of a database…then there’s no point using a blockchain, because [the blockchain] is just a more inefficient version of what you would otherwise do,” says Gideon Greenspan, the CEO of Coin Sciences, a company that builds technologies on top of both public and permissioned blockchains. With this one rule, you can mow down quite a few blockchain fantasies. Online voting, for example, has inspired many well-intentioned blockchain developers, but it probably does not stand to gain much from the technology.

“I find myself debunking a blockchain voting effort about every few weeks,” says Josh Benaloh, the senior cryptographer at Microsoft Research. “It feels like a very good fit for voting, until you dig a couple millimeters below the surface.” Benaloh points out that tallying votes on a blockchain doesn’t obviate the need for a central authority. Election officials will still take the role of creating ballots and authenticating voters. And if you trust them to do that, there’s no reason why they shouldn’t also record votes. The headaches caused by open blockchains—the price volatility, low throughput, poor privacy, and lack of governance—can be alleviated, in part, by tweaking the structure of the technology, specifically by opting for a variation called a permissioned ledger.

“I find myself debunking a blockchain voting effort about every few weeks”

In a permissioned ledger, you avoid having to worry about trusting people, and you still get to keep some of the benefits of blockchain technology. The software restricts who can amend the database to a set of known entities. This one alteration removes the economic component from a blockchain. In a public blockchain, miners (the parties adding new data to the blockchain) neither know nor trust one another. But they behave well because they are paid for their work. By contrast, in a permissioned blockchain, the people adding data follow the rules not because they are getting paid but because other people in the network, who know their identities, hold them accountable.

Removing miners also improves the speed and data-storage capacity of a blockchain. In a public network, a new version of the blockchain is not considered final until it has spread and received the approval of multiple peers. That limits how big new blocks can be, because bigger blocks would take longer to get around. As of July, Bitcoin can handle a maximum of 7 transactions per second. Ethereum tops out at around 20 transactions per second. When blocks are added by fewer, known entities, they can hold more data without slowing things down or threatening the security of the blockchain. Greenspan of Coin Sciences claims that MultiChain, one of his company’s permissioned blockchain products, is capable of processing 1,000 transactions per second. But even this pales in comparison with the peak throughput of credit card transactions handled by Visa—an amount The Washington Post reports as being 10 times that number.

As the name perhaps suggests, permissioned ledgers also enable more privacy than public blockchains. The software restricts who can access a permissioned blockchain, and therefore who can see it. It’s not a perfect solution; you’re still revealing your data to those within the network. You wouldn’t, for example, want to run a permissioned blockchain with your competitors and use it to track information that gives away trade secrets. But permissioned blockchains may enable applications where data needs to be shielded only from the public at large. “If you are willing for the activity on the ledger to be visible to the participants but not to the outside world, then your privacy problem is solved,” says Greenspan.

Finally, using a permissioned blockchain solves the problem of governance. Bitcoin is a perfect demonstration of the risks that come with building on top of an open-source blockchain project. For two years, the developers and miners in Bitcoin have waged a political battle over how to scale up the system. This summer, the sparring went so far that one faction split off to form its own version of Bitcoin. The fight demonstrated that it’s impossible to say with any certainty what Bitcoin will look like in the next month, year, or decade—or even who will decide that. And the same goes for every public blockchain.

With permissioned ledgers, you know who’s in charge. The people who update the blockchain are the same people who update the code. How those updates are made depends on what governance structure the participants in the blockchain collectively agree to.

Public blockchains are a tremendous improvement on traditional databases if the things you worry most about are censorship and universal access. Under those circumstances, it might just be worth it to build on a technology that sacrifices cost, speed, privacy, and predictability. And if that sacrifice isn’t worth it, a more limited version of Satoshi Nakamoto’s original blockchain may balance out your needs. But you should also consider the possibility that you don’t need a blockchain at all.

Chuck Reynolds

Marketing Dept
Please click either Link to Learn more about -Bitcoin.
Interested or have Questions. Call me 559-474-4614


Young investors make thousands from bitcoin but experts warn amateurs could lose everything

Alessandra Sollberger, 29, has made more than $80,000 (£60,000) from bitcoin,

Young investors make thousands from bitcoin but experts warn amateurs could lose everything

Anyone seeking the hottest investments will have been watching developments in cryptocurrency with a discerning eye.

Bitcoin, the king of the breed, has soared in value since launching in 2010. Thirty dollars’ worth of bitcoin bought at launch would have made you a millionaire by now.

But the digital currency is also susceptible to wild fluctuations. Less than two weeks ago, the price of bitcoin collapsed by 15 per cent in a single day amid speculation that China was about to impose a crackdown on the currency.

Veteran investors and financial advisers will warn you to steer clear of such a risky product. But whether the experts like it or not, the value of cryptocurrency is growing at an astonishing rate. Bitcoin, which is priced in US dollars, was worth less than 10 cents in October 2010. By November 2013 the value had jumped to $980, and it leapt again to a new high of almost $5,000 (£3,700) early this month.

The likes of bitcoin can hit dizzy heights.

They can also fall precipitously Today a single coin is worth more than $4,200. The jump in value has been fuelled by growing demand from buyers around the world. In particular, it appears to have captured the interest of young people who see cryptocurrency as a way to get involved in investing.

Alessandra Sollberger, the 29-year-old founder of London-based “superfoods” company Evermore Health, got in at the right time. She bought around 400 coins for less than $9 in mid-2012 after hearing about the currency through her work at a private equity firm.

The Oxford University graduate, who grew up in Switzerland, sold 250 coins when the price hit $82 in March 2013, making her more than $20,000. She then sold another 100 for $600 in 2014, netting her a further $60,000.

She used the money to launch her own business last year and still holds four coins, which have a current market value of almost $17,000. “Obviously with hindsight I should have put everything into it, but I’m happy with the returns I got,” she says.

Alessandra Sollberger, 29, used the money she made from bitcoin to start a business

Ms Sollberger, who is also an adviser to a cryptocurrency hedge fund in the US, believes virtual currency has a long-term future.

She is backing ether and ripple as other successful currencies, although she says investing is not for the faint-hearted. “There’ll be so much volatility. It takes a strong stomach and fundamental conviction to hold one of these in the long term.”

Beware of hackers

Cryptocurrency has no physical shape or form. The coins are created and stored electronically and transactions are made between individual users, bypassing banks. Advocates say this is the future of money – but others are concerned.

One big issue is security. Because the coins are stored electronically, the system appeals to hackers. People may also simply forget their account details or password, losing access to their coins.

Justin, a graphic designer for an architectural practice in Bath, bought 6.5 bitcoins in June 2015 for less than £1,000. The 43-year-old, who declined to give his surname, now has a portfolio worth £20,000.

But he is not planning to cash in any time soon. He plans to reassess his bitcoins in 2025, by which point he will have held them for 10 years. He has also been putting more in this year. “Rather than stick spare money at the end of the month into a savings account, I spend it on bitcoin,” he says.

Andrea Casino, 22, is new to cryptocurrency

Andrea Casino, a 22-year-old Master’s student, only starting investing in crypto two months ago. He put $2,000 in two newer crypto coins – OmiseGo (OMG) and Lisk.

“I was up about $600 in my first week. But then the concerns about China happened and the value dipped to $1,500. Now I’m $400 in profit,” he says. “I don’t do any other form of investing. It’s a bubble but holding now is the wisest thing to do.”

How to buy:

Partly for the purposes of researching this article – as well as being curious about the growth potential of bitcoin – I recently became a buyer.

The first thing you need is a wallet to store the “coins”. Investors willing to spend a lot of money should really get an offline wallet (similar to a hard drive). I went for a free online wallet at

After you have signed up for a wallet, you will be given your own bitcoin address – a unique set of numbers that is similar to a bank account number. Once you have copied down your address, head to an online exchange to buy some coins. I used after reading several favourable reviews online. It also offers a very competitive commission rate.

You can buy various currencies on Bittylicious, although Blockchain will only host bitcoin and ether in the wallet at the moment. You buy the coins by paying cash direct into the seller’s high-street bank account.

You don’t have to buy a whole bitcoin; it can be as small a portion as you want. There are some places in the UK where you can spend your bitcoin – see


Have you missed the boat?

There is no doubt that bitcoin’s growth has slowed over the past month. However, investors will know that any investment should be made with the long term in mind.

In bitcoin’s case, no one knows what the value of the coins will be in 10 years’ time. The currency could soar by more multiples, or it could collapse and become another failed financial product that economists will analyse for years to come.


Should you invest?
What the experts say

Gretchen Betts, Magenta ­Financial Planning
The high returns are clearly attractive to young people. However, this market is unregulated and susceptible to fraud and hackers – with no compensation if this happens. So as an investor, you could lose everything.

Cryptocurrency should be considered very high risk and only for sophisticated investors who can afford to speculate with money they are prepared to lose. The volatility means losses of 20 per cent in a day are not unusual; most people can’t afford to lose that much.

As an unregulated asset, bitcoin is not something I would recommend as an investment. There are also some ethical concerns to consider – the anonymous nature of cryptocurrency makes it attractive to criminals and for money laundering.

William Hobbs, Barclays
To make the case for an asset’s inclusion in a portfolio, it needs to have a positive expected return over the long term, and act as a diversifier.

Bitcoin potentially satisfies both criteria. With the increasing digitisation of the economy, we may see a greater shift towards non-cash transactions executed through digital means. This would, increase the utility of cryptocurrency, potentially leading to price appreciation and a positive expected return. Besides that, bitcoin is unlike most traditional asset classes.

Of course, correlations should be interpreted with caution, given how unstable they can be.

Nevertheless, current patterns suggest, in theory, that bitcoin may be, in theory, a useful diversifying asset.


Author: Elizabeth Anderson


Posted by David Ogden Entrepreneur

David Ogden Cryptocurrency entrepreneur



North Korean hackers’ attempts to steal bitcoin are a huge wake-up call

North Korean hackers’ attempts to steal bitcoin are a huge wake-up call

  • North Korean hackers' attempts to steal bitcoin to finance the Kim Jong Un regime bring a new sense of urgency to the need to rein in the cryptocurrency.
  • One big way to rein in bitcoin would be to treat it like a commodity like gold or oil. Each bitcoin should be accounted for, taxed and insured.
  • Law-enforcement officials in all countries should first aim to catch the big fish — groups like ISIS, North Korea, and terrorists — who are using bitcoin for illegal activity.

For years, bitcoin critics have warned us

about how the cryptocurrency provides way too much opportunity for criminals to launder money. Even JPMorgan CEO Jamie Dimon slammed bitcoin recently, saying it is a "fraud" that would be shut down at some point. But a recent report that shows North Korean hackers are increasing their attempts to steal bitcoin from South Korea may be the final straw that leads regulators to rein in bitcoin. The report, from cybersecurity firm FireEye, found three attacks against South Korean cryptocurrency exchanges traced to North Korean hackers between May and July of this year.

"The ability of regimes like Kim Jong Un's North Korea to mine or steal cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin is a new reason to be cautious in treating these commodities as currencies," University of Georgia Professor Jeffrey Dorfman said in an email exchange. "While rogue states have practiced counterfeiting even longer than they have been computer hacking, counterfeiters are easier to catch. Once a cryptocurrency is stolen, it is virtually impossible to stop the new owner from spending it, and doing so in untraceable ways." In other words, we're no longer talking about hypothetical and faceless criminals anymore. We've all seen the laughing faces of Kim Jong Un and his generals after every new missile test, including last month's most terrifying launch of an intercontinental

ballistic missile.

"How would the U.S. and other nations rein in bitcoin exactly? And who would do it? The simple answer is for the government to make sure bitcoin is forever treated like a commodity like gold, oil, or even fine art and collectible cars."

Now, imagine if there was evidence Osama bin Laden had used bitcoin to finance the 9/11 attacks and that information came out in the first few days and weeks after those attacks. Remember the sense of urgency and even legal carelessness that characterized the drafting and bipartisan passing of the Patriot Act after 9/11? How would the U.S. and other nations rein in bitcoin exactly? And who would do it? The simple answer is for the government to make sure bitcoin is forever treated like a commodity like gold, oil, or even fine art and collectible cars. Criminals and rogue states could still use bitcoin in many ways, but it would be much more cumbersome to use than physical or online cash.

For example, treating it as a commodity would mean that each bitcoin would have to be accounted for and taxed more accurately like gold bars. Those making the argument that bitcoin exchanges need a reserve requirement are also on the right track. That's because by imposing that reserve requirement, shadier bitcoin markets and exchanges would be forced out of the business. That too would further discourage criminal involvement.

Another commodity-like aspect that should be introduced into the bitcoin world is insurance. Just like you can insure jewelry and valuable art, encouraging bitcoin owners to insure their property would add a level of private scrutiny to the market that should also make criminal use that much harder to achieve. The U.S. Commodities Futures Trading Commission, (CFTC), would be the logical government agency to take on the job of enforcing these changes, but bitcoin is such a major entity now that nothing short of a White House decree with the full backing of the Justice Department and even the Department of Homeland Security could set this process in motion.

"I think digital currency can have a bright future," former CFTC Commissioner Bart Chilton said in an email. "They just have not hit on the correct way to do it with various protections, portability of use, and of security in an underlying value (like commodities do provide)." Making this change would also mean leaning on countries like Japan, that began accepting bitcoin as legal currency in April, to reverse or add new restrictions to that move. The fact that Japan is most squarely in Kim Jong Un's missile cross hairs, should make that argument somewhat easier to make in Tokyo now that we now of Pyongyang's bitcoin maneuvering.

But it would also mean focusing on the big fish first. A study issued in May by the Center for New American Security calls for law enforcement officials in all countries to prioritize their efforts on catching groups like ISIS, North Korea, and terrorists who are using bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Doing these things could go a long way toward ensuring those innocent investors who are simply trading bitcoin as a commodity don't lose everything overnight. But let's face it, it could also be a huge disruption to bitcoin investors if the cryptocurrency suddenly ceased to be so accessible to criminal entities. Some major bitcoin bears, like Intellyx president Jason Bloomberg, insist its entire value would be wiped out if criminals could no longer use it easily. This spring, Bloomberg wrote: "the only reason Bitcoin has value to anyone is because of the underlying value as a medium of exchange for lawbreakers. If we could flip a switch and eliminate all illegal uses of Bitcoin, there would be nothing left of the cybercurrency."

Bloomberg may be exaggerating about that; he's at least ignoring the non-criminal advantages of using bitcoin like its very low transaction fees and faster transaction speeds. LIU Post economics professor Panos Mourdoukoutas says the digital currency won't disappear and bitcoin will simply return back to its, "old role: a collectible currency for tech savvy enthusiasts." The words "collectible" and "enthusiasts" sure sound like the terms we use for commodities like rare coins, fine art, and sports souvenirs, don't they? And that brings us back to protecting innocent investors. One could make similar arguments about gold coins or diamonds having a special allure for criminals trying to move their money out of the law's reach. But the market has long put an inherent value on gold and diamonds that transcends whatever nefarious purposes they can sometimes serve.

That doesn't mean bitcoin isn't in a significant bubble right now. And the warnings made to bitcoin investors about the possibility of the bubble bursting have been loud and numerous for some time. But that's a far cry from saying it's worthless as anything but a tool for crooks, terrorists, and rogue dictators. There will be a drop in the value of bitcoin if it were more properly regulated and thought of as commodity, but investors wouldn't lose everything in that process. That seems like a win/win.

Chuck Reynolds

Marketing Dept
Please click either Link to Learn more about -Bitcoin.
Interested or have Questions. Call me 559-474-4614


First Cash, Now Gold? Another Bitcoin Hard Fork Is on the Way

first cash now gold

First Cash, Now Gold? Another Bitcoin Hard Fork Is on the Way

Bitcoin, bitcoin cash, bitcoin gold?

There could be as many as four cryptocurrencies bearing the bitcoin name if a small group of miners and developers carry out a planned fork of the blockchain this month.

Styled as a rebellion of sorts, bitcoin gold aims to follow a similar launch plan as bitcoin cash – the blockchain that split from bitcoin this summer by way of a "hard fork." The idea of the project is to release an improved protocol, one that will challenge bitcoin cash in particular, and details are now starting to come come into focus.

Led by Jack Liao, CEO of Hong Kong mining firm LightningASIC, bitcoin gold is slated to launch on October 25, with its cryptocurrency being opened to exchanges on November 1.

Still, while whispers of the event are just beginning to spread, the importance of the project appears up for debate. Given that bitcoin cash produced an ultimately smaller bitcoin network, not to mention a cryptocurrency that's worth about 12 percent as much as bitcoin at press time, most seem to view the plan as another distraction in an already divided community.

For one, bitcoin gold looks like it could be even smaller that bitcoin cash, at least in that not as many miners seem to support it.

In remarks, BTC.Top founder Jiang Zhuoer and ViaBTC CEO Haipo Yang – two early champions of bitcoin cash – went so far as to downplay bitcoin gold as insignificant.

'Decentralized again'

But while those in the know might be skeptical of bitcoin gold, it does have a goal that many in the community may find attractive: creating a truly decentralized bitcoin.

Most notably, the developers behind the network hope to open up mining to more participants by replacing bitcoin's mining algorithm with one that will enable it to be mined with graphics cards. The idea is to make big miners – sometimes controversial figures on the network – less relevant.

"Bitcoin gold will implement a proof-of-work change from bitcoin's SHA256 to Equihash, a memory-hard algorithm that is ASIC-resistant and optimized for GPU mining," explained pseudonymous bitcoin gold developer "The Sorrow."

That the plan is being hatched in China, long the hotbed of bitcoin mining, only adds another layer to the story. Liao, whose mining hardware largely focuses on the litecoin network, is seen as one of the few voices domestically that can challenge the established order.

Yet, Liao was quick to name one mining firm in particular, Bitmain, as the reason that more bitcoin users should support the idea. A mining company that has been at the center of bitcoin drama over the last year, critics have long argued that the firm has too much of an influence over the network.

Still, creating a network that grows so popular as to remove miners is easier said than done, and some are skeptical that this would lead to the end goal that bitcoin gold advocates desire.

"GPU mining can't prevent centralization. GPU [markets] are controlled by Nvidia and AMD," Zhao Dong, a cryptocurrency trader and investor, argued in response to the plan.

Liao, however, argued the accessibility of the companies' products means the distribution of hashing power might evolve differently.


Bitcoin gold's unknowns

Again, though, even project leaders admit many of the details around the hard fork are fuzzy.

Bitcoin gold's pseudonymous lead developer "h4x" said that the project is "still evolving" and details such as exact block height of the hard fork are still up for discussion.

According to the original website text, bitcoin gold was even planning an initial coin offering (ICO) by which 1 percent of the bitcoin gold coins would go to the developer team, but these details have since been removed.

One thing is clear though about the funding: because of the nature of the split, every bitcoin user at the time will have an equal amount of bitcoin gold associated with their private key.

"It is a minimalist fork of the Bitcoin Core codebase in the spirit of litecoin – only a few conservative modifications," said h4x.

H4x went on to describe bitcoin gold in more abstract biological terms, arguing that it tests how well hard forks work and if they benefit the ecosystem.

He said:

"Organisms derive benefits from creating offspring. With bitcoin gold we are conducting an experiment to see if that principle holds true in the world of blockchains."

And this sentiment is largely in line with developers who have predicted that more bitcoin forks similar to bitcoin cash will come forth in the future.

After bitcoin cash forked earlier this summer, for example, Lightning Network developer Tadge Dryja argued that more forks would spring up, but for another reason: money.

With bitcoin gold in the works and another hard fork slated for November, it seems that prediction is slowly becoming reality.


Sep 27, 2017 at 08:00 UTC by Alyssa Hertig


Posted by David Ogden Entrepreneur
David Ogden Cryptocurrency entrepreneur


What is bitcoin? How does it work? and what affects its price?

What is bitcoin?
How does it work?
and what affects its price?


Few technologies have the ability to stir passionate online debate

and baffle the vast majority of the population as bitcoin. The virtual currency has been a constant source of interest and confusion since it thrust itself into the mainstream more than five years ago. But interest in bitcoin is now greater than ever. Its value has soared to above $4,000, a new high point, turning some people who hoarded vast amounts early on into millionaires. But why? Is bitcoin the future of currency? Is it currency at all? What is it for? And should I buy some? Read on to have your questions answered.

What is bitcoin?

Bitcoin is a digital currency created in 2009 that uses decentralised technology for secure payments and storing money that doesn't require banks or people's names. It was announced on an email circular as a way to liberate money in a similar way to how the internet made information free.

How does it work?


Bitcoin works on a public ledger called blockchain, which holds a decentralised record of all transactions that is updated and held by all users of the network. To create bitcoins, users must generate blocks on the network. Each block is created cryptographically by harnessing users' computer power and is then added to the blockchain, letting users earn by keeping the network running. A limit for how many bitcoins can be created is built into the system so the value can't be diluted.  The maximum amount is just under 21 million bitcoin. There are currently 15 million in circulation, each of which was worth more than $4,000 ($3,080) at the time of writing. 


What affects its price?

The price of a bitcoin has jumped up and down since it first entered the mainstream consciousness in 2013. That year prices rose by almost 10,000 per cent before the collapse of Mt Gox, the biggest online bitcoin exchange, sent it crashing. Prices slowly crept up after that but have since surged again. This is largely put down to regulators appearing to warm to bitcoin and the rise of initial coin offerings – a way for projects to raise money by selling cryptographic tokens similar to bitcoins. Many sceptics believe we are in the middle of a new bitcoin bubble while advocates say we are just beginning to see the rise of bitcoin.

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? 

Satoshi Nakamoto is the mysterious creator of bitcoin and blockchain. Despite countless attempts to unmask the person or people behind the name, their identity has remained elusive. There have been numerous unsuccessful attempts by journalists to reveal the bitcoin founder. In a high-profile incident in 2014, Newsweek magazine relaunched with a feature outing Dorian Nakamoto, a 64-year-old Japanese-American man, as the creator. The affair, having fallen apart under scrutiny, ended with a car chase and the real Nakamoto refuting the allegations. 

The most recent candidate was Craig Wright, a former Australian academic, who claimed to be the bitcoin inventor. Wright wrote blog posts and gave interviews to Wired, BBC and the Economist in 2015 and 2016 saying he was behind bitcoin.After failing to provide unquestionable proof, Wright posted an apology message that said: "I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me. But, as the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage. I cannot."  

How many people use bitcoin?

There are as many as 5.8 million users that have cryptocurrency wallets, according to research from the University of Cambridge, the majority of whom use bitcoin. 

What is it used for? 

Bitcoin is has a range of uses, including funding companies, investing cash and transferring money without fees. It is commonly associated with criminal activity such as drug dealing, cyber crime and money laundering, since it can be near-impossible to tie a bitcoin wallet to any one individual. Bitcoin can be spent online and at select retailers in the UK. They include CEX stores, Dell's website, Your Sushi restaurants, and some pubs. A full list of online and offline businesses that accept bitcoin is available here. They can also be withdrawn at a couple of dozen bitcoin ATMs, which can be found here. Others simply hold their bitcoins, hoping they will accumulate in value and prove to be a lucrative investment. Its price is notoriously volatile, and early investors are now sitting on massive gains.

Should I invest in bitcoin?

Bitcoin is safeguarded against fraud and theft through independent and decentralised set up, as well as being free from transaction fees. It has also given great returns to some investors, with the price jumping from a few dollars at the beginning of 2013 to $1,100 by November. People who invested £2,000 five years ago would now be millionaires. After a few level years, its dollar price soared again this year, and it has peaked at around $4,200. But the price has also dropped in the past and left people out of pocket. Back in May it fell by $400 in a day.  

Chuck Reynolds

Marketing Dept
Please click either Link to Learn more about -Bitcoin.
Interested or have Questions. Call me 559-474-4614